By Alon Kahana, MD, PhD (University of Michigan)

The term “orbit” refers to the eye socket – the bones, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, glands and connective tissues that surround the eye. Diseases of the orbit fall into several categories: inflammatory, neoplastic, congenital malformation, or infectious. Treatment of orbital diseases depend on (1) correct diagnosis, and (2) correct treatment plan that takes into account both medical and surgical treatment options.

Common orbital diseases include thyroid eye disease (also known as Graves Eye Disease or Graves Orbitopathy), orbital pseudotumor (also known as idiopathic orbital inflammation), orbital cellulitis, orbital tumors and orbital vascular anomalies such as cavernous hemangiomas and lymphangiomas.